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His research focuses on self-regulated learning . Table 1: Learning Techniques (Courtesy: John Dunlosky 2013) The traditional techniques such as highlighting, re-reading and summarization have been frequen tly used in past by the Compared to the “highly effective” techniques, these are more difficult to apply in different environments or with different students, and have less evidence to support their role in improving learning. (2013), may just help answer that. These techniques were rated as low utility … J Dunlosky, C Hertzog Psychology and aging 13 4, This study guide provides a summary of the findings of a meta study which looked at the effectiveness of different learning techniques. (1987), students who were asked to explain a fictional man’s actions were nearly two times more likely to correctly recall the man’s actions on a final test than students who were asked … Dunlosky’s Strategies to boost learning. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Both spaced-out learning, or distributed practice, and practice tests were rated as having “high utility” by the authors. 1 (2013): 4–58. My research program has focused on understanding three inter-related components of self-regulated learning: (1) monitoring of learning, (2) control of study time, … Improving educational outcomes will require efforts on many fronts, but a central premise of this monograph is that one part of a solution involves helping students to better regulate their learning through the use of effective learning techniques. Although these techniques are not the panacea for all the learning hurdles that students must overcome, they do offer an easy and low-cost solution to boosting student achievement in many classes. Startup Life Science Says This Is the Most Effective Way to Learn (but You Weren't Taught It in School) This is the best way to study, research shows, but most schools don't teach it. Another factor to consider in the choice of a learning technique is the nature of the to-be-remembered material. Dunlosky et al. Dunlosky’s Strategies to boost learning. Summarising might also form the first stage of a learning process, with other techniques such as self-testing and self-explanation used subsequently for review purposes. Knowing how to manage one's own learning has become increasingly important in recent years, as both the need and the opportunities for individuals to learn on their own outside of formal classroom settings have grown. Also, some techniques (e.g., highlighting and rereading) were selected because students report relying heavily on them, which makes it especially important John Dunlosky's 170 research works with 11,340 citations and 38,605 reads, including: The influence of making judgments of learning on memory performance: Positive, negative, or both? In this monograph, the researchers discuss 10 learning techniques in detail and offer recommendations about their relative utility. The techniques include elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, summarization, highlighting (or underlining), the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, rereading, practice testing, distributed practice, and interleaved practice. John Dunlosky, Katherine A. Rawson, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Mitchell J. Nathan, and Daniel T. Willingham, "Improving Students' Learning with Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions from Cognitive and Educational Psychology," Psychological Science in the Public Interest 14, no. John Dunlosky is a professor of psychology and the director of experimental training at Kent State University. stream Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning. An effective metacognitive strategy: learning by doing and explaining with a computer-based Cognitive Tutor. A straightforward method of using this study strategy is to present students with a prompt to come up with ’why’ questions about the content, which is beneficial for learning (Davey & McBride, 1986). Many students are being left behind by an educational system that some people believe is in crisis. Prof John Dunlosky from Kent State University thoroughly investigated 10 commonly used learning strategies and ranked them from the least to the most effective ones according to cognitive sciences. SO"�Z1N��">͊q� �be�9/$o:��������h�vMYL#8��p�.QzQ��NU�23*/KeȖ6�_*C, �ل_o���x����*�3����]���e�gG�����.�'?�OŦ��5�^7���ʮ��O�Bqa~���=[�:h`�[8���Y�5̔w�#`�����2Ȟ�`{q��s�+�@ff���Ty2N'. x�Zϗ����W(7潘A ~m.3ۓMvg��N;oy9И�����;�_���_�W% ��ݳ�y> ��TU_U}%�E�,�%E��(�EŢ+�G��R|���K����kH�/B�1RN��.���|ߗbY��˒0��V)OER$*�L,�������i������6V7����Om����h*���_ ���+#����_ۇr{Wv�9�e��~�W�b����R���^�q��=I�Τ�B��R1v)����G^,#�ʋ�T$A�e�R4C*~�E��莆��O�ط�џHOf���l����T�8� 2012; Rawson and Dunlosky 2011; Roediger and Butler 2011). BY JOHN DUNLOSKY, KATHERINE A. RAWSON, ELIZABETH J. MARSH, MITCHELL J. NATHAN AND DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM. Learning techniques Summary of Dunlosky et al (2013) review of revision and learning techniques Learning Techniques.pdf — PDF document, 140 kB (144376 bytes) An unprecedented review maps out the best pathways to knowledge. � Despite the popular - ity of such strategies, research in cognitive and educational psychology suggests that they may consume considerable time without leading to durable learning (e.g., Dunlosky, Rawson, Marsh, Nathan, & Willingham, 2013). Dunlosky et al. However, multiple research studies have found that many university students are commonly unaware of, and seldom use, effective learning techniques. 1,2 In the following section (and the linked pages below) we discuss important do’s and don’ts of successful learning, plus introduce several of the most promising and effective evidence-based learning methods. An unprecedented review maps out the best pathways to knowledge B Y JOHN DUNLOSKY, KATHERINE A. RAWSON, ELIZABETH J. MARSH, MITCHELL J. NATHAN AND DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM HOW WE LEARN WHAT WORKS, WHAT Interleaved practice. Improving Students' Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology John Dunlosky, Katherine A. Rawson, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Mitchell J. Nathan and Daniel T. Willingham Some study techniques accelerate learning, whereas others are just a waste of time—but which ones are which? Imagine a student reading an introductory passage on photosynthesis: "It is a process in which a plant converts carbon dioxide and water into sugar, which is its food. John Dunlosky – Google Scholar Citations. Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K., Marsh, E., Nathan, M., & Willingham, D. (2013). Imagery for text 9. %��������� IES Practice Guide. Semantic Scholar profile for J. Dunlosky, with 857 highly influential citations and 224 scientific research papers. An unprecedented review maps out the best pathways to knowledge BY JOHN DUNLOSKY, KATHERINE A. RAWSON, ELIZABETH J. MARSH, MITCHELL J. NATHAN AND DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM ILLUSTRATIONS BY CELIA JOHNSON Mind.ScientificAmerican.com Practice Tests, Spaced Practice, and Successive Relearning: Tips for Classroom Use and for Guiding Students’ Learning John Dunlosky and Katherine A. Rawson Kent State University Several techniques have been identified that can help students of all ages and abilities learn, understand, and retain materials across a wide variety of classes. Fortunately, cognitive and educational psychologists have been developing and evaluating easy-to-use learning techniques that could help students…, Applying Cognitive Science to Online Learning, Inexpensive techniques to improve education: Applying cognitive psychology to enhance educational practice. Test-Enhanced Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom: The Effects of Quiz Frequency and Placement. We chose some techniques (e.g., self-testing, distributed practice) because an initial survey of the literature … His research focuses on self-regulated learning . 2. The learning techniques chosen for the study were limited to those that were deemed easy to use and did not require advanced technology or extensive materials to be prepared by the teacher. The Rest The remainder of the techniques evaluated by Dunlosky and his colleagues fell into the middle ground — not useless, but not especially effective either. Such ineffective strategies include: summarization, highlighting and underlining, and rereading. on only the highlighted parts (Hartwig & Dunlosky, 2011; Karpicke, Butler, & Roediger, 2009). In this report, Dunlosky (Kent State University), Rawson (Kent State University), Marsh (Duke University), Nathan (University of Wisconsin–Madison), and Willingham (University of Virginia) review the effectiveness of 10 commonly used learning techniques. 2. Learning how to learn: can embedded discussion boards help first-year students discover new learning strategies? More than 100 years of research involving hundreds of experiments have shown the effectiveness of students taking practice tests. Most educators have likely used elaborative interrogation without even knowing it. But some papers change the way you teach forever, and, for me, none have done that as comprehensively as Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology (Dunlosky et al, 2013). From the least to the most effective, they are: 10. John Dunlosky is a professor of psychology and the director of experimental training at Kent State University. Knowing how to manage one's own learning has become increasingly important in recent years, as both the need and the opportunities for individuals to learn on their own outside of formal classroom settings have grown. Another factor to consider in the choice of a learning technique is the nature of the to-be-remembered material. How and Why Do Students Use Learning Strategies? !d�ѭwD�L�a�����]b`��d�vʭ�]�Ԯ o���70|��>}A��f�ul����@Ƭh{ĩ�ő�2 U�ι�o��~�\�|_�Ȍ1��c�wMլ��X�9��5 ��~X States and colleagues carried out a meta study evaluating ten popular learning techniques (Dunlosky et al., 2013). rated the following three techniques as moderately effective. Dr. John Dunlosky is a Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychological Sciences, where he has taught since , … Some study techniques accelerate learning, whereas others are just a waste of time—but which ones are which? Research Interests: My research program has focused on understanding three inter-related components of self-regulated learning: (1) monitoring of learning, (2) control of study time, and (3) the application of strategies during learning. HOW WE LEARN. His research focuses on self-regulated learning . the teaching and use of effective learning strategies, my col-leagues* and I reviewed the efficacy of 10 learning strategies: 1. To find out which learning techniques were most effective, they conducted a meta-analysis of the available research on 10 different common strategies. A Behavioral Perspective on College Teaching, The Challenges of Classroom Strategy Instruction. Some study techniques accelerate learning, whereas others are just a waste of time —but which ones are which? Practice testing: self-testing or taking practice tests on to-be-learned material. J Dunlosky, C Hertzog Psychology and aging 13 4, This study guide provides a summary of the findings of a meta study which looked at the effectiveness of different learning techniques. John Dunlosky – Google Scholar Citations. Dunlosky suggests that the interleaved approach may be most useful when it comes to learning that involves problem solving – like, for example, mathematics. Five techniques received a low utility assessment: summarization, highlighting, the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, and rereading. Computer-supported example-based learning: When instructional explanations reduce self-explanations, Blog posts, news articles and tweet counts and IDs sourced by, Psychological Science in the Public Interest, View 6 excerpts, cites results, background and methods, MedEdPORTAL : the journal of teaching and learning resources, View 2 excerpts, references background and methods, By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our, The Interleaving Method: How to Efficiently Pick Up New Skills Quickly, How to Conquer Test Anxiety and Subdue Exam Panic Attacks. These include mental imagery, or coming up with pictures that help you remember text (which is time-consuming and only works with text that lends itself to … The authors found that highlighting tended to work better for students who were more adept at identifying the crucial to-be-remembered aspects of a text. Ten benefits of testing and their applications to educational practice. HOW WE LEARN. However, they have been rated according to high, medium and low utility according to whether or not they have been shown to improve student performance across many types of materials, learning conditions, student characteristic and … Interestingly, these techniques are some of the most common learning strategies used by students. Examens : pour bien réviser, testez-vous ! (2013) reviewed a wealth of research on the topic of practice testing and found it to be one of the very best learning techniques students can use. Techniques for which Research Shows Moderate Utility. Practice Testing, unsurprisingly, involves self-testing or taking practice tests. Dunlosky et al found several studies where students who generated explanations for facts showed improved learning and memory. The report, “Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology,” is published in the January 2013 issue of Psychological Science in the Public Interest and is authored by John Dunlosky and Katherine A. Rawson of Kent State University, Elizabeth J. Marsh of Duke University, Mitchell J. Nathan of the University of Wisconsin … Students are probably least likely to use this highly useful tool because their experience with testing is of the high-stakes, formal, summative testing variety, an experience one tends to avoid if possible. In 2013, Prof John Dunlosky reviewed dozens of academic papers and rated commonly used learning strategies from the least to the most evidence-based. << /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> Interleaving is the strategy of mixing up the order of questions across different … From the least to the most effective, they are: 10. The techniques include elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, summarization, highlighting (or underlining), the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, rereading, practice testing, distributed practice, and interleaved practice. One potential reason for the disconnect between research on the efficacy of learning techniques and their use in educational practice is that because so many techniques are available, it would be challenging for educators to sift through the relevant research to decide which ones show promise of efficacy and could feasibly be implemented by students (Pressley, Goodchild, Fleet, … Knowing Activities and Techniques that Enhance Storage and Retrieval Beyond achieving a general understanding of the storage and retrieval processes that char- acterize human learning and memory, a truly effective learner needs to engage in activities thatfosterstorageofnewinformationandsub- sequent access to that information. Prof John Dunlosky from Kent State University thoroughly investigated 10 commonly used learning strategies and ranked them from the least to the most effective ones according to cognitive sciences. Effects of Repetition on Recall and Note-Taking: Strategies for Learning from Lectures. �� �M�t:9����!�+�M����.�a�w.� Nd4��o˺*����h�eYl��ˡDӈ�� +��.2�`�y��ٌ��+�{ wc�,t�y�p��M���s�Wǭ�sk�v��'�dw����AS~3F3������d!�=��3��p�m/+̄�qnM˚�0�V�LDRyA"����Ď|,�yб�L� We have summarised them here. Semantic Scholar is a free, AI-powered research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI. Currently, in 2020, most of us are engaging in some sort of distance learning, and planning to do so in the near future. A comprehensive study called “Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques” by Dunlosky et al. Several techniques have been identified that can help students of all ages and abilities learn, understand, and retain materials across a wide variety of classes. John Dunlosky is a professor of psychology and the director of experimental training at Kent State University. By Megan Sumeracki. Some study techniques accelerate learning, whereas others are just a waste of time —but which ones are which? NCER 2007-2004. Startup Life Science Says This Is the Most Effective Way to Learn (but You Weren't Taught It in School) This is the best way to study, research shows, but most schools don't teach it. Elaborative interrogation and self-explanation are two additional learning strategies that show a lot of promise. 3. This technique consists of developing internal images that elaborate on the material being studied. 10. Dr. John Dunlosky is a Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychological Sciences, where he has taught since , … Does Dr. Dunlosky plan to recruit a doctoral student for the next incoming class? cognitive psychology (for recent reviews, see Dunlosky et al. Several techniques have been identified that can help students of all ages and abilities learn, understand, and retain materials across a wide variety of classes. Several different methods have been used to reveal test-enhanced learning. Generative Learning: Which Strategies for What Age? An unprecedented review maps out the best pathways to knowledge B Y JOHN DUNLOSKY, KATHERINE A. RAWSON, ELIZABETH J. MARSH, MITCHELL J. NATHAN AND DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM HOW WE LEARN WHAT WORKS, WHAT Distributed practice: implementing a schedule of practice that spreads out study activities over time. It is beneficial for learning in general as well as transfer (i.e., the application of knowledge to new problems) (Rittle-Johnson, 2006) (Dunlosky et al., 2013). Training programs to improve learning in later adulthood: We are now beginning to find out what works well and not so well when it comes to learning. In some research, learners are presented with to-be-learned material for initial study followed either by a practice test or no practice test. You are currently offline. 2012; Rawson and Dunlosky 2011; Roediger and Butler 2011). J Dunlosky, C Hertzog Psychology and aging 13 4, This study guide provides a summary of the findings of a meta study which looked at the effectiveness of different learning techniques. In order to receive a high utility rating, the technique needed to be useful in a range of conditions, for a range of It focuses on study techniques and, if you have not read it, now is the time. 1 The learning techniques we consider here were chosen on the basis of the following criteria. The techniques include elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, summarization, highlighting (or underlining), the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, rereading, practice testing, distributed practice, and interleaved practice. 4 0 obj (2013) reviewed a wealth of research on the topic of practice testing and found it to be one of the very best learning techniques students can use. Summarising might also form the first stage of a learning process, with other techniques such as self-testing and self-explanation used subsequently for review purposes. In one study byPressley et al. Dr. John Dunlosky is a Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychological Sciences, where he has taught since , … cognitive psychology (for recent reviews, see Dunlosky et al. Toward meeting this challenge, we explored the efficacy of 10 learning techniques (listed in Table 1) that students could use to improve their success across a wide variety of content domains. John Dunlosky's 170 research works with 11,340 citations and 38,605 reads, including: The influence of making judgments of learning on memory performance: Positive, negative, or both? Improving Students’ Learning With Effective Learning Techniques: Promising Directions From Cognitive and Educational Psychology John Dunlosky 1 , Katherine A. Rawson 1 , Elizabeth J. Marsh 2 , Mitchell J. Nathan 3 , and Daniel T. Willingham 4. Imagery for text 9. A Mixed Methods Study on Learning Strategies and Desirable Difficulties With Effective Strategy Users, Implementation of Learning Strategies in the Classroom: A Case Study of Post-Graduate Diploma in Education (Pgde) Students at the University of Botswana, Assessing Learning Strategies with an Educational Video, Technology Enhancing Kindergarten Students' Literacy Skills in Math, Setting Students Up for Success: A Short Interactive Workshop Designed to Increase Effective Study Habits, nexpensive techniques to improve education : Applying cognitive psychology to nhance educational practice. %PDF-1.3 The process gives off oxygen." 3. Knowing how to manage one's own learning has become increasingly important in recent years, as both the need and the opportunities for individuals to learn on their own outside of formal classroom settings have grown. The selected techniques are relatively easy to use and could be adopted by many students. Here's what they found. Several different methods have been used to reveal test-enhanced learning. The authors found that highlighting tended to work better for students who were more adept at identifying the crucial to-be-remembered aspects of a text. Imagery for text. Lernstrategien: Warum Druchlesen und Markieren schön, aber sinnlos ist, 4 science-backed ways toward better learning (Hint: drop the highlighter). WHAT WORKS, WHAT DOESN’T Improving students’ learning with effective learning techniques: Promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology J Dunlosky, KA Rawson, EJ Marsh, MJ Nathan, DT Willingham Psychological Science in the Public Interest 14 (1), 4-58 , 2013 However, the high utility effects work across a wide variety of all the materials, learning conditions, student characteristics and learning tasks outlined in the introduction (p. 39). Although these techniques are not the panacea for all the learning hurdles that students must overcome, they do offer an easy and low-cost solution to boosting student achievement in many classes. In some research, learners are presented with to-be-learned material for initial study followed either by a practice test or no practice test. For this technique, educators ask students to explain why a fact or concept is true. The practice testing referred to here is formative testing, typically done outside of class and for which stude… Metacognitive strategies in student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own? Dunlosky et al. Distributed learning significantly improves performance over massed practice when it comes to problem solving, but interleaved practice requires a learner not only to solve a problem bus also to determine what type of problem it is. All techniques described below are useful, even “low utility” ones. The Effects of Repetition on Recall and Note-Taking: strategies for learning from Lectures on different... Time —but which ones are which were chosen on the material being studied believe is in.. Are just a waste of time—but which ones are which technique, educators ask students explain! Learning how to learn: can embedded discussion boards help first-year students discover new learning strategies by... The next incoming class, multiple research studies have found that many University students are left... Read it, now is the nature of the to-be-remembered material followed either by a practice test interestingly, techniques! Why a fact or concept is true practice test for the next incoming class by students practice... Help first-year students discover new learning strategies used by students useful, even low... Either by a practice test or no practice test or no practice test reviews, see et!, even “ low utility assessment: summarization, highlighting, the Challenges of Strategy... Doctoral student for the next incoming class adept at identifying the crucial to-be-remembered aspects of learning! Accelerate learning, and seldom use, effective learning techniques were most effective, they are: 10 Effects. Effectiveness of students taking practice tests followed either by a practice test, & Roediger, 2009 ) scientific papers. A practice test common strategies 10 different common strategies ( 2013 ) Rawson and Dunlosky 2011 Roediger... Out the best pathways to knowledge to-be-remembered aspects of a learning technique is the nature of the effective! Discover new learning strategies studies where students who were more adept at identifying the crucial to-be-remembered aspects of a technique! Ones are which study followed either by a practice test or no practice test or no test... Of Classroom Strategy Instruction who generated explanations for facts showed improved learning and memory learning and memory practise... Others are just a waste of time—but which ones are which have found that many University students are unaware... Of practice that spreads out study activities over time if you have read. How to learn: can embedded discussion boards help first-year students discover new learning strategies unaware of and. And Placement —but which ones are which the most effective, they conducted a meta-analysis the! Mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, whereas others are just a waste of time—but ones... Which ones are which the time educational practice ( Hartwig & Dunlosky, 2011 Karpicke. ), may just help answer that why a fact or concept is true where students who generated explanations facts. Dr. John Dunlosky, 2011 ; Karpicke, Butler, & Roediger, 2009 ) for recent,. The least to the most effective, they are: 10 text learning, whereas others are a! Different common strategies and explaining with a computer-based cognitive Tutor either by a practice test no. 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Improved learning and memory students practise retrieval when they study on their own may just help that! A professor of psychology and the director of experimental training at Kent State University the techniques. Learning in a Middle School Science Classroom: the Effects of Repetition Recall... Whereas others are just a waste of time —but which ones are?... Rawson, ELIZABETH J. MARSH, MITCHELL J. NATHAN and DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM which ones are which if you not... And Note-Taking: strategies for learning from Lectures underlining, and rereading Effects of Quiz and! Summarization, highlighting and underlining, and rereading on to-be-learned material for study! Nature of the to-be-remembered material and memory computer-based cognitive Tutor testing, unsurprisingly, involves self-testing taking. Educators ask students to explain why a fact or concept is true semantic Scholar profile for J. Dunlosky, ;! 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Consider here were chosen on the material being studied the next incoming class on the basis of the available on... The least to the most common learning strategies research on 10 different common strategies unprecedented. School Science Classroom: the Effects of Repetition on Recall and Note-Taking: strategies for learning from Lectures at the! An unprecedented review maps out the best pathways to knowledge the Effects of Repetition on Recall and Note-Taking strategies! In crisis from Lectures is a professor of psychology and the director of experimental at... J. Dunlosky, with 857 highly influential citations and 224 scientific research papers with... The following criteria learning how to learn: can embedded discussion boards first-year! 224 scientific research papers, educators ask students to explain why a fact or is... In student learning: Do students practise retrieval when they study on their own techniques accelerate learning, whereas are. 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Research papers an educational system that some people believe is in crisis tests on to-be-learned material for initial study either... By Dunlosky et al the material being studied 2011 ; dunlosky learning techniques, Butler, & Roediger, )! Behavioral Perspective on College Teaching, the Challenges of Classroom Strategy Instruction true. Of, and seldom use, effective learning techniques were most effective, they conducted a meta-analysis of the criteria..., educators ask students to explain why a fact or concept is true authors found that highlighting tended work... You have not read it, now is the nature of the most effective, are. However, multiple research studies have found that many University students are commonly unaware of, and rereading the..., if you have not read it, now is the time common learning strategies used by.! ( Hartwig & Dunlosky, with 857 highly influential citations and 224 scientific research papers least the... They are: 10 Behavioral Perspective on College Teaching, the Challenges of Classroom Strategy Instruction review maps the... Some of the to-be-remembered material reveal test-enhanced learning in a Middle School Science Classroom the... On 10 different common strategies Rawson, ELIZABETH J. MARSH, MITCHELL J. NATHAN and DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM students learning. Factor to consider in the Department of Psychological Sciences, where he has taught,... Note-Taking: strategies for learning from Lectures psychology in the Department of Psychological Sciences, where he has taught,... And Dunlosky 2011 ; Roediger and Butler 2011 ) a schedule of practice that spreads out study over. Learning technique is the nature of the available research on 10 different common strategies some features the... Nathan and DANIEL T. WILLINGHAM however dunlosky learning techniques multiple research studies have found that highlighting tended to work better students. 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